Inaugural group exhibition in Dvir Paris: ‘Espèces d’espaces’

Dvir Gallery was founded in Tel Aviv in 1982 by Dvir Intrator with the aim of promoting and exposing the contemporary artistic scene of emerging and established Israeli artists.

With time, the gallery has become an important actor in the local art scene, presenting the most appreciated artists of the era. It is in this spirit, that in 1994, the gallery began collaborating with international renowned artists such as Lawrence Weiner, Douglas Gordon, Latifa Echakhch, Adel Abdessemed amongst others.

The opening of additional spaces, in Brussels in 2016, and now in Paris, is a manifestation of the continuous desire to present and promote Israeli and international artists locally and abroad.



We could not be happier to open this new chapter with group exhibition ‘Espèces d’espaces’ inspired by George Perec.


Born in 1971 in Algeria, Abdessemed now lives and works in Paris, France. The artist produces works deeply embedded in power issues. Both his character and his work reveal that he is a fierce guardian of the essential pillars of humanity, of love, of compassion, and of hope. Through evocative yet subtle experience, Abdessemed’s works suppress our systemic desensitization to violent acts. In so doing, the artist shows his unique ability to convene the seemingly discordant elements of tenderness and shock.

As Larys Frogier, Director of Rockbund Art Museum, puts “Adel Abdessemed has a unique position in contemporary art, and the way he touches those who engage his works has virtually no equivalent. That effect lies in his unique use of raw, simple materials and words, as well as straightforward but very subtle fabrication of the image, but also in the way his works revisit some of the historical and theoretical assumptions in the contemporary arts.”

Drawing for Adel Abdessemed is a rigorously monolingual medium that fulfils the requirement of uniqueness expressed by Celan – usually, monochrome drawings invariably done with a stick of sharpened black chalk of consistent quality, in a very brief space of time, on paper placed either flat or upright. They concentrate on the emergence of a figure to the detriment of any spatialization (although there are certain exceptions, Abdessemed’s work being anything but systematic), and above all they eschew metaphor, that is to say any connotation that might compromise a direct, immediate grasp of the singularity of their object.

Jacques Derrida points out that the metaphorical displacement, guided by the function of similarity (mimes or homoiosis) and governed by the laws of resemblance, simultaneously entails a return to the uniqueness of meaning. Abdessemed stresses this point: his drawings refer to nothing other than themselves; they transmit no images or ideas but, on the contrary, bring images and ideas back to a stage prior to the instauration of meaning, there were pure singularity resides. This does not mean that phenomena of displacement does not occur in the moment of execution, in which the work of metaphor is literally recognized. It could even be argued that if Abdessemed’s drawings contain no metaphors, that is because drawing as such is the metaphor – that is to say, the description of a displacement in which the act of drawing ultimately summons up appearances.


Comprising installation, sculpture and video, Miroslaw Balka’s work has a bare and elegiac quality that is underlined by the careful, minimalist placement of objects, as well as the gaps and pauses between them. Often using his own body and his studio as a template or first point of reference, Balka’s work might incorporate personal or self-referential substances such as ash, felt, salt, hair and soap.

Balka’s work deals with both personal and collective memories, especially as they relate to his Catholic upbringing and the collective experience of Poland’s fractured history. Through this investigation of domestic memories and public catastrophe, Balka explores how subjective traumas are translated into collective histories and vice versa. His materials are simple, everyday objects and things, but also powerfully resonant of ritual, hidden memories and the history of Nazi occupation in Poland.

Retrospectives of his work took place in such institutions as Pirelli Hangar Bicocca in Milan, Museum of Art in Lodz and in the Museum Morsbroich in Leverkusen. Balka’s works are in numerous institutional collections including: Tate Modern, London; Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven; MOCA, Los Angeles; SFMOMA, San Francisco; MOMA, New York; Hirshhorn Museum, Washington DC; The Art Institute of Chicago; The Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; Museu Serralves, Porto; Moderna Museet, Stockholm; Kiasma, Helsinki; Kröller-Müller, Otterlo; EMST The National Museum of Art, Athens; The National Museum of Art, Osaka; The Israel Museum, Jerusalem; Tel Aviv Museum of Art; Collection Lambert, Avignon; Middelheimmuseum, Antwerp; Fundació n Botín, Santander; Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb. In Poland his works are in the collections of: Muzeum Sztuki, Lodz; Centre of Contemporary Art, Warsaw; Zacheta – National Gallery of Art, Warsaw; Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw; The National Museum, Wroclaw; MOCAK, Cracow; Labirynt, Lublin; Arsenał, Bialystok.


Marianne Berenhaut, Belgian-born (1934) artist has been gathering, curating, transforming objects found in her immediate surrounding creating powerful yet delicate sculptures and installations. Her work addresses longing, trauma, absence and memory. Through her vast body of work, spanning through 55 years, Marianne Berenhaut has created a unique visual language. 

Today, she divides her time between Brussels and London, constantly creating. 

Having graduated the Académie du Midi and Atelier de Moeschal in the sixties, she had various solo exhibitions in different art spaces and institutions most recently, coinsiding retrospective exhibitions in Mhuka (Antwerpen) and in CIAP (Genk) and previously in La Maison des Femmes (Brussels), Island (Brussels), Belgium Jewish Museum (Brussels), MAC’s Grand Hornu (Belgium) as well as in Isy Brachot Gallery (Brussels), and Nadja Vilenne Gallery (Liège). She has been part of several group exhibitions as in Maison Grégoire (Brussels), Gladstone Gallery (Brussels), Bureau des réalités (Brussels) as well as Carl Freedman Gallery (Margate, UK). Her works have become part of prestigeus public and private institutions, including the collection of Mhuka (Antwerpen), collection of Flemish Government, Belgium, Museum of Jewish People, Tel Aviv among others.




Best known for his evocative, metaphorical videos and mixed-media installations, Romanian artist Mircea Cantor makes work reflective of a broad world-view that is at once optimistic and trenchantly critical. In his works, he examines competing ideologies, war, displacement, the self and the other, and multi valence. Keenly aware of the multitude of meanings that a word or an object can contain, he deliberately mixes materials and uses language playfully, producing poignant, challenging works that defy neat categorization. He also refuses to be neatly defined, as he explains: “We know who we are, so why not go deeper? Let’s stand for something other than our nationality. [. . .] [My] objects speak of the great openness in which we can live today, beyond national categories.”

Epic Fountain, a totemic column of safety pins fastened to resemble the double helix of human DNA, refers to the building blocks of all living existence. For Cantor, the molecular structure represents aspiration. The fountain referred to in the title is not a traditional one of water, but of life itself; the molecule being the source of all living organisms. 

Hung from ceiling to floor, Epic Fountain forms an impressive but delicate tower – an epic, yet fragile, monument to existence


Simon Fujiwara (born 1982, London) is a British Japanese artist living and working in Berlin. His work takes multiple forms including theme park style rides, wax figures, robotic cameras, ‘make-up’ paintings and short films that address the complexity and contradictions of identity in a post- internet, hyper-capitalist world. Fujiwara often investigates themes of popular interest such as tourist attractions, famous icons, historic narratives and mass media imagery and has collaborated with the advertising and entertainment industries to produce his work in a process he describes as ‘hyper-engagement’ with dominant forms of cultural production. His work can be seen as a complex response to the human effects of image fetish, technology and social media on his generation.

Who the Bær

Through Who the Bær, Fujiwara’s latest and ongoing body of work, the artist  explores complex topics using the reductive logic of the cartoon universe to expose the normalizing power of the capitalist image culture we inhabit. Fujiwara’s existential cartoon character oscillates between subject and symbol, being and thing and is a tool for the artist to investigate cultural anxieties around identity and its relationship to the performativity of image culture.

Made with an instinctive and responsive hand, this exhibition focuses largely on collaged works that introduce us to the basic principles of his character through a meme-like, cut and paste aesthetic. Housed within a fragmented, themed environment of oversize bear cut-outs, we discover the pleasures and traumas, violence and joys of life in the mediated modern world through the absurd adventures of a cartoon bear.

The project has been exhibited first in Prada Fondazione Milano, and subsequently in Kunstinstituut Melly, Rotterdam and an animation from the series is currently being projected once a week,  on jumbotrones around the world as part of CIRCA project.

Who the Bær can also be followed via their official Instagram account, @whothebaer.


Douglas Gordon is a Scottish artist who creates work that questions the complexities of memory and perception. Gordon works across a wide range of media including film, photography, text, and audio. Born in Glasgow in 1966, Gordon studied at Glasgow School of Art from 1984 to 1988 and continued his studies at Slade School of Art in London, graduating in 1990. He currently works and lives between Glasgow, Berlin and New York. Douglas Gordon’s new paintings utilise acetone printing to transfer provocative soft-core images from early 1960s issues of Playboy magazine onto burnt, unveiled, and asymmetrical canvases marked by homomorphic drips of wax, acrylic paint, and unknown liquids. The transfers dilute the visibility and definition of the images to the point they become a semi-transparent superfluous tissue evaporating through the interlaced threads of the canvas that both consumes and materialises them. The new paintings juxtapose the cyclical movement of time conducted by the intermittent appearance and disappearance of the images with a sense of change and extension implied by the vague contours and positions of the canvases and the flowing drips of wax and paint.

The most recent self-portraits allude to Douglas Gordon’s uneasy affinity for Andy Warhol, which has often impacted the content and tone of his work. Warhol’s immortalized cultural icons here as charred, browned bits of commercial reproductions floating on mirrored backgrounds, singed remnants of the heroic originals that nonetheless possess an eerily powerful presence. Douglas Gordon’s portraits underscore Warhol’s phenomenal resonance in today’s art world, while capturing the self-reflexive nature of the post- Warholian period.


Dor Guez produces photography and video installations that explore the relationship between art, narrative, and memory, interrogating personal and official accounts of the past. His practice raises questions about contemporary art’s role in narrating unwritten histories and re-contextualizing visual and written documents. Dor Guez was born into a Palestinian and Tunisian – Jewish family in Jerusalem, and now lives and works in Jaffa.

Scanograms #1: Samira, Lod Ghetto, a year after 1948, 2010’ is the best known series coming from the artist’s ongoing project Christian-Palestinian Archive (CPA).  The meaning of the term ‘Scanograms’ is literally drawing with a scanner machine. Every Scanogram is made by three different scanners, each scan is programmed to feature a different aspect of the material, and then the artist composes the layers into one image. These fifteen scanograms, dating from 1938-1958, portray the artist’s grandmother, Samira, and her family. Each of the images documents an important event in their lives while they were together before Samira’s family was exiled from Jaffa and dispersed to Lod, Amman, Cyprus, Cairo, and London. 

One of these works depict Samira’s wedding in the Lod Ghetto in 1949, one year after what was a significant date for them: July 13, 1948. The day when her hometown was conquered by Israeli military forces. 

Samira’s story is a point of departure for Guez’s project Christian-Palestinian Archive (CPA). Guez founded the CPA in 2006 after discovering a suitcase filled with old photographs and documents at his grandparent’s home in Lod. His family’s photographs were the first pillar of the archive.  Today the CPA is an independent entity containing thousands of digital images from Christian-Palestinians across the world. The CPA gathers photographs through open calls. 

‘Scanograms #1’ were presented in numerous prestigious institutions worldwide, including KW, Institute for Contemporary Art (Germany), Rose Art Museum Boston, (USA), Videobrasil Festival (Brazil), Istanbul Biennial (Turkey) and Dvir Gallery (Israel).

Guez’s works are part of numerous international public collections, including Tate Museum (London), Rose Art Museum (Boston), FRAC collection (Marseille), Israel Museum (Jerusalem), Schocken collection (Te Aviv), BNL collection (Italy), Petach Tikva Museum of Art (Petach Tikva), Brandis University (Waltham), Recanati collection (New York), Beit Hatfutsot (Tel Aviv), Jewish Museum (New York) amongst others.


Born in Israel in 1949, Yudith Levin lives and works in Ein Vered. Levin is considered one of the key figures in Israeli art.

Over an artistic career spanning over more than four decades, Yudith Levin has been creating paintings on both traditional and untraditional supports, covering canvases as well as scraps of discarded plywood found on the streets of Tel Aviv with expressive, gestural brush-strokes and semi-abstract figures and landscapes.

By combining abstraction and figuration, Levin makes evocative works that are open to varied readings.

How was this first series of Yudith Levin’s figurative painting created?

This is answered by the famous myth about the beginning of painting. It is worth exploring this myth in the context of Levin since she confronts the viewer with a borderline painting – in-between nothingness and a whole universe, between chaos and diamond, between a dump and flight. One of the places where Levin’s work deviates from the rational is the lack of distinction between figurative and abstract. Her figurative paintings are created like abstract paintings, from gestures which are not underlain by any figurative plan or intention.

Her exhibitions include Helena Rubinstein Pavilion for Contemporary Art Tel Aviv, Museum of Contemporary art Ramat Gan; The ICA Boston, Massachusetts; Gallerie Knodedler, Zurich; The Israel Museum, Jerusalem; Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice, Opera House, Leipzig and others.

Her work is part of prestigious public collections such as Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel Museum of Art, Jerusalem, Albertina Museum as well as in prominent private collections. She is the laureate of the Sandeberg Prize of the America Israel Foundation, Pundik Prize, Prize of the Ministry of Culture and The Discount Bank Prize.


In his practice, Maljkovic delves into the malleability of the collective and individual experience of time and space. The artist presents viewers with works that create their own space, time and history, while also hinting at answers to the uncertainty of an unknowable future. In so doing, Maljkovic often plays on the possibilities allowed by the mediums at hand, making works that have a more intuitive use of the materials.

Maljkovic embraces the collage method and self-referentiality by (re)using his earlier works as raw material in order to reach a high level of complexity in his work. 

There is a certain parallelism on stage, in which, the space of everyday routine as well as artistic practice is approached. This is visible on the two-dimensional surface where a photograph serves as a backdrop for the fine network of drawing on the surface. These lines recall the various metamorphoses of the artist’s work. The inter-space of these two opposing realities creates the theme.

The artists solo exhibitions include: 

‘With the Collection’, Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Rijeka, Croatia (2020), ‘Also on View, The Renaissance Society Chicago’, Chicago, USA (2020), The Exhibition is Becoming, VOX Centre de l’image contemporaine, Montreal (2016), In Low Resolution, Palais de Tokyo, Paris (2014), Kunstmuseum St. Gallen, St. Gallen (2014), Sources in theair, Baltic Art Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead (2013), Sources in the air, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven (2012), Exhibitions for Secession, Wiener Secession, Vienna (2011), Out of Projection, Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid (2009). Maljković has participated in group shows such as: The Eighth Climate (What Does Art Do?), 11th Gwangju Biennale, Gwangju (2016), Scenes for a New Heritage: Contemporary Art from the Collection, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA (2015), All The World’s Futures, 56. Biennale di Venezia, Venice (2015), Animism, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin (2012), The Present and Presence, Moderna Galerija: Museum of Contemporary Art Metelkova, Ljubljana (2011), MUSAC, 29th Sao Paulo Art Biennial, Sao Paulo (2010), What Keeps Mankind Alive, 11th Istanbul Biennial, Istanbul (2009), When Things Cast No Shadow, 5th Berlin Biennial for Contemporary Art, Berlin (2008).


Born to Polish-Jewish parents in Nuremberg, Metzger was evacuated to Great Britain in 1939 at the age of twelve with the help of the initiative known as the Kindertransport. As a young boy, he became aware of the atrocities of the totalitarian Nazi regime. His parents and other relatives perished in the Holocaust.

In 1959, Metzger wrote his first manifesto, titled ‘Auto-destructive Art’ and with this became the founding father of a radical new form of art. With this and his later manifestos, he showed how society could be destroyed by capitalism, but also highlighted the transformative potential of destruction; for example, the possibility for transformation of society through individual and collective action. In 1961, Metzger demonstrated the concept of ADA for the first time by vigorously spraying nylon canvasses with acid, causing them to disintegrate. This was an attack on, and even a symbolic destruction of, the system. At the same time, Metzger not only rebelled against the political system, but also against the commercial aspects of the art world. In 1977, he proposed a three-year Art Strike, which he hoped would cause a collapse and complete restructuring of the art system.

Gustav Metzger has had solo exhibitions at Serpentine Galleries, London; Tate Britain, London; Museo Jumex, Mexico City; Neuer Berliner Kunstverein, Berlin; Haus der Kunst München, Munich, Kunsthalle Basel, Basel; New Museum, New York; Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv and many others. Moreover, his work was shown at Documenta 13 (2012), the Venice Biennale of 2003 and the Sao Paulo Biennale of 2010.


British artist Jonathan Monk replays, recasts and re-examines seminal works of Conceptual and Minimal art by variously witty, ingenious and irreverent means. Speaking in 2009, he said, “Appropriation is something I have used or worked with in my art since starting art school in 1987. At this time (and still now) I realised that being original was almost impossible, so I tried using what was already available as source material for my own work.” Through wall paintings, monochromes, ephemeral sculpture and photography he reflects on the tendency of contemporary art to devour references, simultaneously paying homage to figures such as Sol LeWitt, Ed Ruscha, Bruce Nauman and Lawrence Weiner, while demystifying the creative process.

In presented here ‘The Deflated Inflated’, Jonathan Monk turns his attention to neo-pop artist Jeff Koons. In 1987 – incidentally the same year that Monk began art school in Glasgow – Charles Saatchi first introduced Koons’ work to a British audience, by including ‘Rabbit’ (1986) in the two-part exhibition New York Art Now. The sculpture, a larger than life cast in stainless steel of a toy bunny inflatable balloon, has become an icon of its era and its highly polished surface has fuelled imitations and tributes, such as Mark Leckey’s film ‘Made in ‘Eaven’ (2004). 

Starting from a pink vinyl inflatable bunny, Koon’s original source, Monk has created a sequence of stainless steel sculptures, which capture the inflatable in progressive states of deflation. With each stage, the ‘Deflated Sculpture’ (2009) droops slightly, leans against the wall of the exhibition space, folds over and collapses in a formless shape on its own plinth. As Koons raised everyday mundane objects to iconic status, Monk literally deflates this monumentality using a characteristic whimsical twist and a wink to Claes Oldenburg’s soft sculptures. 


Florian Pumhösl (b. 1971) lives and works in Vienna work is constituted by a constellation of historical references encoded within a visual language that appears purely formal. The apparent abstraction of his paintings, films, and installations is anchored by specific archival sources: 17th-century kimono designs, avant-garde typography, WWI military uniform patterns, cartography, Latin American textiles, and early dance notations. Through the selection, reduction, rearrangement, and reproduction of his source materials—unsystematic and subjective modes of transcription—the artist arrives at a vocabulary that is at once abstract and semiotically motivated.

Pumhösl’s compositions establish points of contact with realms traditionally consigned to the margins of modern art. Through attention to the social, political, and geographic genealogy of given forms, his works reveal that the modernist fantasy of complete self-referentiality was always already haunted by irreducible specificity and cultural instability. “I am calling into question to what extent it is possible to act within a space defined by the artist himself – a space that emerges from the hierarchy between my own authorship and its research sources, between historical references or concrete borrowings and what I can depict,” Pumhösl states. “My medium is the physical and historical space that I create using painting, architecture, film or photography.”

The works presented in the exhibition are part of the The field between formal abstraction and signifying potential has long been a major preoccupation of Pumhösl’s, and in recent works he has been increasingly interested in notions of innuendo and insinuation, especially in the context of “de-familiarization”. A literary strategy, “de-familiarization” – as coined by Russian formalist Wiktor Schklowski – can be seen as the point where meaning ends and seeing begins, or where signs morph into a poetic layer. A series of plaster paintings in smaller format follows in that vein. Here the artist draws on elements and possibilities of the Ge’ez script (also known as Fidäl), used for contemporary Amharic as well as Tiringya (languages used in the south of Tel Aviv by Dvir Gallery’s neighbours). Starting from single word constellations in Amharic, the artist was interested mainly in the phonetic value of the signs, in the sheer sound anterior to the word and even to the sign itself.


In his practice, Ariel Schlesinger (b. 1980 in Jerusalem, lives and works in NYC) turns daily products of consumption into rare and surreal objects. By “transformation” and “damage” of domestic accessories, Schlesinger creates a world of poetical imagery, combining household objects and simple technology in order to create absurd acts.

He makes works of exquisite detail and subtlety as sculptures and installations. Ordinary objects or situations are altered by the addition of an unexpected material or circumstance, creating small ruptures in the fabric of our everyday reality. 

Untitled (2 Turkmenistan Carpets VI), 2013 is perhaps the largest and most spectacular work in the series inspired by an incident that occurred in World War II in an iconic Berlin establishment – the Pergamon Museum – affecting the building and its exhibits. The museum exhibits a rich collection of archaeological artefacts dug by German research expeditions around the world, particularly in the Near East.

German archaeologists have contributed immensely to the study and preservation of ancient cultures, but at the same time expropriated indigenous cultural assets in a typically colonialist manner. From this perspective, the museum’s exhibits manifest the complex ethical issue of cultural preservation involving the marginalization and erasure of that culture. During the war, a Turkmenistan carpet was moved from the museum collection to safer storage in a warehouse in the outskirts of the city. Nevertheless, it was damaged in one of the last bombing raids. Years later, it was restored and displayed again in the same museum. As Schlesinger observes, the disaster paradoxically gave the object new life, and as a rule – a disaster that ends the original purpose of an artefact gives us viewers an opportunity to discover hitherto hidden qualities. After its burning, the carpet lost its original role as an artistic asset representative of a foreign or even oriental culture and gained additional meanings which echo the difficult historical events whose memory and implications cannot be erased. In the act of reconstructing the disaster that befell the carpet we can see not only the end of the object itself, but also that of the problematic conception which had guided the establishment responsible for it, and more broadly, the state responsible for both.

Schlesinger uses fire in many of his works. He states that he does so like he would use any other material, except that in each work, it serves a different purpose. Sometimes, fire highlights a functional aspect of the work, and sometimes a paradoxical one. In the present work, the artist harnesses fire to the potential charged with in it in a fascinating way. Having placed the rolled carpet over the open flame, his control over the end result became fairly limited. The burnt holes gaping randomly across the carpet are a physical illustration of a senseless offensive and violent act, articulating it as a central axis in the piece, in both form and content.


Naama Tsabar’s practice fuses elements from sculpture, music, performance and architecture. Her interactive works expose hidden spaces and systems, re-conceive gendered narratives, and shift the viewing experience to one of active participation.

Tsabar draws attention to the muted and unseen by propagating sound through space and sculptural form. Between sculpture and instrument, form and sound, Tsabar’s work lingers on the intimate, sensual and corporeal potentials within this transitional state. Collaborating with local communities of female identifying and gender non-conforming performers, Tsabar writes a new feminist and queer history of mastery.

Naama Tsabar’s work is currently on view in Manhattan’s High Line, New York City as part of ‘The Musical Brain’ group exhibition. This year her widely acclaimed,  solo exhibition ‘Perimeters’ took place in the Bass Museum, Miami.

In this exhibition, Dvir gallery is showcasing two bodies of work of Tsabar.

The New Yorker series, 2021, which are ‘reversed collages’ made with The New Yorker magazines. The pieces were conceived on the heels of the pandemic lock down in NYC, spring 2020. The artist cuts into the iconic cover pages of the publication to unearth images and words embedded inside. In Tsabar’s words it was a process of “digging and removing as a means of searching and reflecting, poems for a changing world.” 

The sculpture presented comes from the series ‘Melody of Certain Damage’, in which Tsabar appropriates the iconic and overtly macho trope of breaking a guitar on stage. Tsabar breaks guitars, but not for the public – and the act is not the climax but rather the beginning of creation. 

The death of the instrument becomes the starting point of the new project. ‘Melody of Certain Damage’ is a document of her destruction and ultimately a proposition for a new kind of instrument, a new sound and way of moving towards for a new creation. She re-purposes the remnants of an act of male bravado and violence, re-imagining the broken pieces as objects of visual and functional significance. Inserting them back into a new working order, Tsabar makes the remains of what once was into living instruments in their own right.


Lawrence Weiner’s texts have appeared in all sorts of places over the last five decades, and although he sees himself as a sculptor rather than a conceptualist, he is among the trailblazers of the 1960s to present art as language. He defines his sculptural medium simply as ‘language + the material referred to’ in the sense that language is a material for construction. While Weiner’s works exist only as language and can be displayed in any form, he is closely involved in manifestations, detailing the size of the font, the surface texture and placement of the paint or vinyl letters and indeed often inventing new fonts. Texts appear on walls and windows of galleries and public spaces, as spoken word in audio recordings and video, printed books and posters, cast or carved objects, tattoos, graffiti, lyrics, online, ad infinitum.